WORLD SOUNDSCAPE PROJECT
The Soundscape Newsletter1-12(1991-1995)
Truax CAA paper formatted.pdf
The Listener BCS.pdf
Truax-Cities and Health.pdf
Song Of Songs.pdf
The Garden of Sonic Delight.mp3
Lecture On Nothing.mp3
Contributor(s) : Qihang Li
Hito Steyerl [en|de] I will survive 21x29.7cm
Contributor(s) : Theetat Thunkijjanukij
, Toni Morrison
Contributor(s) : Megan Tatem
by Tobias Spichtig, Kaleidoscope.
Magazines, various. (Display only)
Psychopolitics: Neoliberalism and New Technologies of Power
by Byung-Chul Han, Verso Books.
by Rita Ackermann & Andro Wekua, Case Publishing, Fergus McCaffrey. (Display only)
Candles, various. (Display only)
Contributor(s) : Emma Hazen
Chewing over topics including vision, vulnerability, the physiological body, multitudinal selves, ecological relations, historical narratives, respiratory commons, weather-making, uneven waters, floods as memory, waterproof affordances, collaborative assemblage, water surfaces, screens, reflections, mirrors, troubling looking, sonic attunement, I find myself undone and becoming.
Here is a shelf life of 10 days, during which something akin to a book, shall we call it a container, or a script, will emerge and at the end of the shelf life will shift from the action of becoming and become an actual part of the werkplaats typografie library.
During the shelf life there may be shifts and subtle changes, should you browse the contents there may appear objects available to loan, a gift, or perhaps a mark of the librarian’s presence. Ruminating on the what has been before and what is picked up along the way, the shelf is a work of attention, holding and moving.
Two books will also join the werkplaats typografie, here they are introduced;
Title : Ankyloglossia (n. tongue-tied)
Author : Emma Waltraud Howes
Publisher : K. Verlag & Künstlerhaus Bethanien
Language : English
Pages : 120
Size : 20cm x 27cm
Weight : 360 g
Binding : Softcover
ISBN : 9783941230354
A volume of parts exploring perspectives towards gesture and non-semantic language, Ankyloglossia (n. tongue-tied) was published on the occasion of artist Emma Waltraud Howes’s solo exhibition in 2014. Both the exhibition and artist’s book take inspiration and echo three seminal performance works by Yvonne Rainer and Samuel Beckett.
Title : The Second Body
Author : Daisy Hildyard
Publisher : Fitzcarraldo Publishers
Language : English
Pages : 128
Size : 12.7cm x 19.5cm
Weight : 159 g
Binding : French paperback, with flaps
ISBN : 9781910695470
The premise of The Second Body is that all humans have two bodies; the flesh and bone and another that is more diffuse, large, and misty. Over four essays, Daisy examines and toys to define exactly what the second body involves, what emerges is a lucid account of the dissolving boundaries of life on earth which largely urge readers to confront the disruption of climate and ecology. An array of conversations with butchers, environmental criminologists, and biologists, references to Shakespeare, Nina Simone, and Elena Ferante alongside cultural theorists. Dig in and try configuring your second body.
Contributor(s) : Amira Prescott
32 paperweights (± 4 kg) on bookshelf (max. 4 kg)
Contributor(s) : Jan-Pieter Karper
Grid Systems in Graphic Design
Book by Josef Müller-Brockmann on Kindle
Failed Images: Photography and Its Counter-practices
Book by Ernst van Alphen
Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism
Book by Fredric Jameson
Contributor(s) : Jiahui Feng
A Fine Collection of Tsuba and other Japanese Sword Fittings (en)
A catalogue of various beautiful tsuba and other Japanese sword fittings in diverse metals that were on auction by Christie, Manson & Woods in London on Tuesday, October 30th, 1973.
Spinnen en Weven (ned)
Book on history of spinning and weaving filled with visuals of intricate weaving patterns and small step by step instructions for the reader.
The All Seeing Eye, Wayne Shorter
The ninth jazz album by Wayne Shorter released on October 1966. In this album, Shorter has worked toward “a wider range of colors and textures” while at the same time continuing his search for added dimensions in his ideas “about life and the universe and God”
“I didn’t pre-plan the form; it emerged.”
Contributor(s): Kaisha Murzamadiyeva
Time has fallen asleep in the afternoon sunshine:
A book on reading, writing, memory and forgetting in a library of living books
Written by Mette Edvardsen
Kristen Van den Brande
Bruno De Wachter
Victoria Pérez Royo
Jon Refsdal Moe
Edited by Mette Edvardsen
Kristen Van den Brande
Victoria Pérez Royo
Runa Borch Skolseg
Published by Mousse Publishing & osloBIENNALEN
‘Books are read to remember and written to forget’
A book format of an initial project in 2010. Seven people each started memorizing a book of their choice, spending their times in libraries, reading, memorizing, talking to each other, going for walks, prepared to be read by a visitor.
When I’m at My days: Thoughts I learned and Some notes to remember
Written by the previous reader(s)
A note made by the past reader(s) to the future readers
Almost 0 kg
Contributor(s) : Natnapat Kullananant
Small is Beautiful
Contributor(s) : Theetat Thunkijjanukij
mine, not mine
Contributor(s) : Kaixin Chen
I get dizzy thinking about the amount of books in the world. None of these books critical on working, living, economics, art and music are new. They have been circulating [for years or decades] and now it’s their time to become a part of the WT library. The fact that I am giving them away hopefully motivates me to finish them during this summer as well :—)
I never rest, but I don’t know if I ever work either
(2018), which comes with a water stain, is investigating the balance between the privileges, burdens and everyday life of creative work.
User-Agent: If everything is so smooth, why am I so sad?
(2018) investigates what it means to be a human User in today’s technological infrastructures, drawing on interviews with policy researchers, UX designers, software developers, architects, journalists, artists, social activists and media theorists.
Talking To My Daughter About The Economy
(2013) is written in 9 days by Yanis Varoufakis where he writes as a parent whose aim is to instruct his daughter on the fundamental questions of our age—and through that knowledge, to equip her against the failures and obfuscations of our current system and point the way toward a more democratic alternative.
Double Lives in Art and Pop Music
(2019) by Jorg Heiser researches how context switching is putting artists in the position of discovering and addressing the contradictions faced in one field of cultural production and serve a radical alternative.
and de zaende
(1950) are post-war historic publications about the history, folklore and genealogy of the region of Zaandam, WT’s most recent host-city.
Contributor(s) : Marianne Noordzij
( 1 ) Subject Element Sign Frame World, Matt Mullican
John Baldessari, Lynne Cooke, Hal Foster, Michael Tarantino, Ulrich Wilmes
28,8 x 33,5 cm
Published by Skira Rizzoli
Matt Mullican is a 21st century surrealist. His complex body of work, stemming from an highly idiosyncratic nature, takes form constructed on systems of semiotics, language and the (sub)consciousness. He has created a deeply anomalous (sur)reality, in which he projects his subjective perception and interpretation of the world. Through hypnosis he uses his psyche as a medium, where his alter ego (self-proclaimed as that person
) emerges. There he makes mural drawings, a method which could be seen as a transformed medium of automatic writing, in front of an audience that has already witnessed him being hypnotized. The performance is recorded which then is also transformed into video work. Aside from this, he uses different media which contain his surrealistic semiotic visual languages. In this monograph you will see an extensive cumulation of large scale frottages (again, an ‚automatic‘ method), sculptures, installations, renderings, textiles, drawings, video stills and many more. Text written by curator Lynne Cooke and art historian Hal Foster can be discovered in this monograph. And an intimate roundtable conversation between the artist himself and his mentor & tutor John Baldessari, mediated by curator Ulrich Wilmes.
( 2 ) The Living Exhibition
Thomas Oberender, Paul Rabe, Berliner Festpiele
13 x 19,5 cm
Published by Spector Books
The Berliner Festspiele
(German for Berlin Festivals) is a cultural institution that stages a large number of festivals, exhibitions and individual events in their two venues — the Haus der Berliner Festpsiele and the Gropius Bau — as well as other locations in the city of Berlin, Germany.
For 5 years (2016 — 2021) the Berliner Festspiele
curated — within the program series Immersion
, lead by Thomas Oberender — a vast extension of exhibitions. Here, artists and curators established a starting point for new forms of work and format of performance and exhibition, which brought in new challenges for cultural institutions. The program series understood Immersion
as an effect-aesthetic term that describes experiences of art which gets under the skin: that peculiar moment when one forgets the medium; is moved by the worked and lives in the inner space of the work itself. Laughing and crying with the figures; no longer noticing the book in one’s hand; or the canvas before one’s eyes. According to the curatorial team of Immersion
, the focus was always on the format: producing new forms of symposia, performances and exhibitions. Breaking out of the rigid and stiff structure of the White Cube. All of these works surrounding Immersion
had the structure of a Gesamtkunstwerk where several arts and media, makers, thinkers, actors and infrastructures were combined. The spatialization of time-based art, the temporization of the spaced-based exhibition format, hybrid event concepts which create artistic and social spaces for new worlds experiences by combining aesthetic and political processes.
The Living Exhibition
, as a book format, not only documents, archives and retells the past performances and exhibitions of Immersion during the Berliner Festspiele, but provokes, criticizes and deconstructs the traditional, regressive and stiff institutional structure of a museum and its White Cube. In the writers’ eyes and minds, the so-called contemporary museums still feel like an enormous trophy room. A metaphor on the power structure of the world, where Western Enlightenment practices were overarching, swallowing, adopting and isolating subjects and objects by removing them from their original context. (Two words which can describe one of this exploitative phenomena
: cultural appropriation
.) The texts in the Living Exhibition
and the series of events themselves tried to break with this regressive structure and habit. They suggest and think about a holistic way of dissolving the strict separation of exhibit and viewer. To understand an exhibition as a whole as a meta-organism, a parastructure, that gives rise to an extended life form, with diverse subsystems. To see an exhibition as a larger, open interplay that can make it possible to experience a different overall configuration every day, even every hour. Exhibitions can be perceived as alive in different ways. As a place of preserving diversity or as socially vital spaces that intervene in re-examining canonical or political positions. Exhibitions that are time-related and audience-reactive and partially dissolve the subject-object relationship between work and visitor, to experience them collectively.
( 3 ) Meisterwerke
Karl Blossfeldt, Hans Jörg Küster
37,1 x 24,3 cm
Published by Schirmer/Mosel
Karl Blossfeldt (†1932) a German sculptor’s fascination for botanical forms is manifested in the catalog Meisterwerke
. Blossfeldt created finely detailed depictions of the plants forms and patterns. He was drawn into (almost in the literal sense) the structure of plants, their innate artistic form, which he wanted to make visible and comparable to his students with the help of photography. Blossfeldt worked with a self-made plate camera and enlarged the plants up to 45 times. Most of the plants he had collected and dissected himself. From around 1898 onwards, he took a total of 6000 photographs, which he used primarily as illustrative material for teaching. In Meisterwerke
I invite you to discover various diverse botanical expressions and their growing gestures.
( plus ) A documentation of my stumblings
21 x 29,7 cm
Here is a fragmented cumulation of texts and images I’ve stumbled upon (once or several times) over the past eight months, which intertwine my various and vast interests around the discourse of art institutions, art education, contradictory methods of creation (impulse/control, intuition/rational), philosophical provocations, contemporary social observations.
( plus, plus ) This is an extension of the eye. That is an extension of the mind. This is a meaning. That is a feeling
Various sizes, mirror plexiglass, laser engraving
As Marshall McLuhan stated: the book is an extension of the eye. While I’d like to suggest that it (the book) could also be an extension of the mind and the eye the mirror of it (the mind).
By engraving personal words and semiotics behind a mirrored surface, I want to individually address and preserve us into this WT building. Each one of you will get two dedicated engravings. The gesture of receiving these can be seen as a gift in form of a memo, a postcard, a poem. One is for you to take to remember our time here, the other will become one with the walls of our old and beloved radio building. My semiotic drawings will become yours. Words from the WT library will be transformed for your eyes. Stand in front of a wall, take any form of light and shine it onto the mirrored surface. A shadow will appear on the wall. After we have left this building, parts of our shadows will be left here too.
( minus ) The Age Of Earthquakes, A Guide to the Extreme present
Shimon Basar, Douglas Copland, Hans Ulrich Obrist
11,15 x 18 cm
Published by Penguin Books
This book might not make it to the library, as Yara has already chosen this one for last year’s library’s contribution. (Which I unfortunately forgot.) As she has already made a nice introduction of the book last year, I will keep my story short: this book was part of my first steps into WT. In my first interview, I applied with this book by reading out of it to everyone in that meeting room.
Contributor(s) : So-Yeon Kim
bring a library to another library from another library
Contributor(s) : Qihang Li
1) Diary of Laurie Parsons, Hand-traced by Donghwan Kam
2) Bibliography of Laurie Parsons, researched by Donghwan Kam
Laurie Parsons is an artist whose works are mostly found objects from the street. They are dust, rocks, mattresses, umbrellas, etc… After some years of artist career, she vanished from the art world and became a caretaker in a hospital for the mentally ill. Donghwan wanted to know what inspired her to take this path. But there was extremely limited information.
I have been following Donghwan’s journey on Laurie Parsons for three years; from the story he first encountered her work in Germany, writing a letter to her, visiting her supposed neighbourhood in New York, going to WDKA library to meet Wilma who had a copy of her diary, and watching him trace the diary everyday.
After he finished tracing the diary, we would talk about what to do with the traced diary. Because, at the end of her diary it says; ‘they should go to person to garbage or as gift or shared with another, no buying + selling please
.’ Then Donghwan thought it would be nice to share it through libraries only, and I thought, how about starting with WT Library? We made together books that will only reside in libraries.
3) Papyrus and Humidifier
I really like that we have many plants next to the library project and they are almost merging together. So I decided to donate part of papyrus that I had at home.
Contributor(s) : Seo kyung Kim, Donghwan Kam
— Manifestly Haraway (2016); author: Donna J. Harraway
brings together the momentous “Cyborg Manifesto” (1985) and “Companion Species Manifesto” (2003) to expose the continuity and ramifying force of Donna Haraway’s thought.
“Cyborg Manifesto” is even more relevant today, when the divisions that she so eloquently challenges—of human and machine but also of gender, class, race, ethnicity, sexuality, and location—are increasingly complex.
"The Companion Species Manifesto is about the implosion of nature and culture in the joint lives of dogs and people, who are bonded in 'significant otherness.' The further questions of the human–nonhuman disjunction, are no less urgently needed in our time of environmental crisis and profound polarization."
— National Geographic (October 1978)
(…) “Cathy laughingly pointed to the notebook in which Koko’s utterances in sign language are logged. The dispute began when Koko was shown a poster of herself that had been used during a fund-raising benefit. Manipulating hands and fingers, Cathy had asked Koko, “What’s this?”
“Gorilla”, signed Koko.
“Who gorilla?” asked Cathy.
“Bird,” responded a bratty Koko, and things went downhill from there.
Contributor(s) Terezie Štindlová
ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER PROSTHETIC MEMORY PROGRAM
Contributor(s) Mirelle van Tulder
Contributor(s) : Sixen Chen
The Clearing, JJJJJerome Ellis
The Clearing is released along side an album of which it is a transcript; highly recommended to listen to. Find it on Spotify and Bandcamp.
“For me, the stutter is a wild animal, and it is my ongoing practice to follow it where it wants to go.” The multi-instrumentalist, writer, and composer frequently lists “stutterer” among his disciplines, referring to his glottal block, an involuntary speech dysfluency that manifests in pauses while talking or reading. For Ellis, his stutter is simply a facet of his person—it only becomes an issue when faced with others’ expectations. But rather than try to suppress it, Ellis makes ample space for dysfluency in his life. He stylizes his first name as “JJJJJerome” because it’s the word he blocks on most often, and on The Clearing he brings speech directly into his art so that the stutter might make itself at home.
Writings 1973–1983 On Works 1969–1979
, Michael Asher, reprint, 2022
Asher did not create traditional art objects; instead, he chose to alter the existing institutional apparatus through which art is presented, creating work dependent on the architectural, social, or economic systems that undergird how art is produced and experienced.
Due to its site specificity and immateriality, Asher’s work ceased to exist after an exhibition, which makes this highly sought-after book the definitive mode through which one can gain insight into the work he made during this period. As the artist states in the introduction: “This book as a finished product will have a material permanence that contradicts the actual impermanence of the art-work, yet paradoxically functions as a testimony to that impermanence of my production.”
Metamorphoses: Toward a Materialist Theory of Becoming (facsimile), Rosi Braidotti
The Hole, Kai Udema, 2022
Contributor(s) : Kai Udema
The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell
(1961) spans from his writings on the nature of science to his most political and humanistic ones. Gimme a sign if you want to discuss any of his essay. His History of Western Philosophy
(1945) draws a clear (and often witty) trajectory of a sometimes tedious matter.
Donald Knuth’s The TeXbook (1984) explains how to use TeX, the ubiquitous language used to typeset most mathematical and physics publications, while Computer Modern Typefaces
(1986) explains how to design typefaces for TeX. I do not really like Donald Knuth nor TeX but I’m sure these books will find a better reader than me.
Orwell’s Politics and the English Language
has helped me not being ashamed of expressing a simple idea. This version of the text is typeset with TeX and displays TeX’s default design.
Amira is looking at Emma who’s looking at Jan-Pieter. Jan-Pieter is looking at Jiahui who’s looking at Johanna. Johanna is looking at Kai who’s looking at Kaixin. Kaixin is looking at Marianne who’s looking at Mijia. Mijia is looking at Qihang who’s looking at Raoul. Raoul is looking at Soyeon who’s looking at Theetat. Theetat is looking at Vennica who’s looking at Yara.
Raoul, who wrote the following question, knows the answer. Others may or may not know the answer yet.
Is someone who does not know the answer looking at someone who knows?
Which of the following statements are true?
0) None of these statements are true.
1) Exactly one of these statements is true.
2) Exactly two of these statements are true.
3) Exactly three of these statements are true.
4) Exactly four of these statements are true.
5) Exactly five of these statements are true.
6) Exactly six of these statements are true.
7) Exactly seven of these statements are true.
8) Exactly eight of these statements are true.
9) Exactly nine of these statements are true.
10) Exactly ten of these statements are true.
Which of the following statements are false?
0) None of these statements are false.
1) At least one of these statements is false.
2) At least two of these statements are false.
3) At least three of these statements are false.
4) At least four of these statements are false.
5) At least five of these statements are false.
6) At least six of these statements are false.
7) At least seven of these statements are false.
8) At least eight of these statements are false.
9) At least nine of these statements are false.
10) At least ten of these statements are false.
Which following statement is the answer to this question?
— All of the below.
— None of the below.
— All of the above.
— One of the above.
— None of the above.
— None of the above.
Contributor(s) : Raoul Audouin
Contributor(s) : Mijia Wang
Ways of Seeing
181mm x 13mm x 111mm
Ways of being
240mm x 35mm x 162mm
Computer and Playstation
Animal Music – Sound & Song in the Natural World
Edited by Tobias Fischer & Lara Cory (Gruenrekorder)
210mm x 148mm
Contributor(s) : Oriol Cabarrocas
-1 “Stairs” by Rein Jansma, Joost Elffers books : stairs in space
-2 “de Grote handwerken encyclopedie” : stairs in book
-3 “Terrestrial Tales - 100+ Takes on Earth” : observation in space
-4 “Fabio De Sanctis” Ruby Press : observation in book
-5 “Metamorfoze” Koninklijke Bibliotheek Den Haag by Irma Boom : sound in space
-6 “Studio Creole” writers: Adam Thirwell + Hans Ulrich Obrist : sound in book
-7 “Bryophytes and lichens of letterewe” writer: Oliver Moore : space in book
-8 “Le vide de la distance n’est nulle part ailleurs” by véronique Beland : spacing in book
-9 Contribution to library: ARTIST WORK LISSON ; Archive of shows of Lisson Gallery : space in book + book in space
-10 And I will contribute the stairs of Oriol for the Library:
“Stairs made for 2 walls for observation”
By Oriol Cabarrocas
Contributor(s) : Eva van Bemmelen
0 Hans Ulrich Reck, Pasolini – The apocalyptic Anarchist
1A Sophie Calle, The Address Book
1B ****** ******, Notebook
Contributor(s) : Philipp Hesselberger
Contributor(s) : Zuzana Kostelanská
My curated contribution is all about the text:
Text as an art, text as a part of art, text as an image and image as a text, which I learned on the path I have followed, from the text to the conceptual art.
(The following texts are aligned from “text as Image“ to “text as text“ by on-site choice of the audience in Zaandam, May 12th, 2022.)
Abstract by Michael Riedel
I learned about Michael Riedel, a German contemporary conceptual artist during my previous study-time in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. He is one of well-known conceptual artists from Frankfurt and also popular as a co-founder of Freitagsküche, which means Friday Kitchen in German, where he casually brought the cultural working and interested people together between cooking, food and art as a social-art project. At the beginning of my Frankfurt-time, when I started to be interested in text-art but not really knew what exactly it is, he had his exhibition Kunste zur Text at Schirn Museum Frankfurt. The key-words of this title is arranged in the other way around from a critical and serious art magazine Texte zur Kunst. While the magazine compiles texts on art, Michael Riedel has simply turned things round, and produces art on texts. His interest is primarily on the repetition of texts and printed material by transferring the digital communication to the transcription in graphic elements.
“Like the Gemini magic spell, where objects multiply at the slightest touch, and the multiplications in turn continue to multiply, my works are, in short, witnesses to a temporally continuing process within the art system”
The graphic works in this book are produced from 2004 to 2011, printed on original banknote paper following the standard 5- to 500- euro formats and parts of them are embossed in hot silver-foils. The whole texts from this book present the exchange of mails between Riedel and his New York gallery to sell his artworks.
I found this concept is quite interesting that he saved all the message about selling his art-works, when I think about he comes from near Frankfurt.
Dictee by Theresa Hak Kyung Cha
I often struggled with saying perfectly, especially in German, the extremely logical and complexed language. Imperfection, Incompletion and Immatureness were another given identities, which I gained from my long-time residence in Germany.
“Inside is the pain of speech the pain to say. Larger still. Greater than is the pain not to say“.
–Theresa Hak Kyung Cha, Dictee
Cha wrote the text about “not to say about the pain to say“ in foreign language, in experimental and deconstructive way by borrowing a form of dictation, a language learning tool, that helps to develop short-term memory. Like you can suppose, the title Dictee means “Dictation“ in French.
“Being broken. Speaking broken. Saying broken. Talk broken. Say broken. Broken speech. Pidgon tongue. Broken word. Before speak. As being said. As spoken. To be said. To say. Then speak“.
–Theresa Hak Kyung Cha, Dictee
I learned Dictee, also when I studied in Germany about six years ago. I got an illegally scanned PDF file in Korean in very low-quality, because ironically this book is out of print and doesn’t republish in Korea since a long time ago. While I was following the artistic traces of Theresa Hak kyung Cha, I found some connections between us: we visited same French catholic high-school, but in different time and space. We have also a series of multiple, fragmented and unrooted identities, reflecting ourselves as an independent human-being not belonging to any countries.
How to write 4: Bathroom Contemplation by Haegue Yang, 2013 (Out of Print)
My good friend Marina Kampka, with whom together I organized a student bookstore in Germany for some years, left this booklet in front of my closed room, while I was in a deep cave to avoid meeting people, due to my tough time with frustration of not-belonging to any society. She wrote me a postcard, which she left behind with this booklet, that she bought this to understand me and thought of me, while she read it. This booklet is collaged therein diary-like texts that were written independently from two different perspectives, by a Korean artist Haegue Yang and her mother and a Korean journalist Misoon Kim, while Kim visited to her daughter Yang in Germany. The texts are mainly about their awkward reunion between remembrance and forgetting about things they have had in common, like it seems to be an important matter to them, whether or not to have a floor-drain hole in bathroom.
“I knew from the very beginning that she didn’t feel comfortable because she wasn’t independent - the language alone drove her crazy. […] Now, not only she but I, too, start suffering from the huge self-constructed attitude of being nice to each other. […] It suddenly seems as if I have a small child who is absolutely dependent on me“.
–Haegue Yang, How to write 4: Bathroom Contemplation
“I suddenly thought of Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice. The direction to take a pound of flesh without spilling a drop of blood was a paradox. […] In the same line, a bathroom without a drain hole means you shouldn’t spill too much water. This came to me like a paradox, too, a warning not to take a bath at all. How could they not know that a bath is one of the pleasures of life […]“.
–Haegue Yang, How to write 4: Bathroom Contemplation
This project was a part of her exhibition and dedicating to the writer Gertrude Stein to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the gallery and bookshop Wien Lukatsch in Berlin, Germany.
Contributor(s) : Young Eun Park